Welding is a cost-effective manufacturing process. However, several factors can significantly increase or reduce the cost-effectiveness and productivity of a welding project. These range from operational efficiency to the use of consumables.
In this article, we will go through 10 ways to significantly reduce welding costs and boost the productivity of welding projects.
1. Avoid Overwelding
Overwelding occurs when a weld is larger than it needs to be. This is a common occurrence in the welding industry, especially with inexperienced welders. An overweld may result when there is no specified weld size in a design, when there is no fillet weld gauge, or when a big weld is created just to play it safe.
Overwelding is a significant resource drain; it uses more arc time, labor, shielding gas, and filler metal, which leads to higher costs. To put this waste into perspective, consider a 1/4″ overweld instead of a required 3/16″ weld: The overweld results in a 78% increase in both weld metal deposition and arc-on time. This goes up to 177% when the overweld is 5/16″.
The construction industry is responsible for the creation of all kinds of structures with varying sizes, levels of complexity, and uses. From simple, small structures such as family homes to large, complex ones like bridges, dams, and manufacturing plants.
Structural integrity and durability are the most important considerations in this industry. This is why the construction industry employs a very large quantity of metals. In the United States alone, more than 40 million tons of steel are used annually in the construction industry. The majority of this quantity is used to create structural frameworks. This is where welding plays an indispensable role in construction.
Welding technologies are widely usedin the construction industry, mainly for the fabrication of structurally sound metal frameworks for by fusing various metals components. It also used to create and maintain non-structural components. Some of the welding used for construction is on pre-fabricated in a shop environment while other parts of the welding process are done on-site.
Applications of Welding in Construction
Construction comprises numerous industries, including transportation, oil and gas, telecommunication, power, manufacturing, many others. The construction industry is very broad & diverse and is divided into three major sectors which differ by the type of structures they create. These sectors are Building, Infrastructure, and Industrial.
The application of welding, is crucial to all three sectors. (more…)
The oil and gas industry plays a very important role in the global energy supply as well as the world economy. Many technologies are crucial to the existence and functioning of this multi-billion dollar industry. One of these is welding.
The oil and gas industry utilizes various highly complex infrastructure such as rigs, pipelines, platforms, plants, and facilities. The majority of these infrastructures are created using welding technologies. Welding is critical in oil and gas operations both for the construction of new projects and for the maintenance of existing facilities.
Applications of Welding in Oil and Gas
The oil and gas industry is divided into three major stages of operation. These, which can be referred to as sectors, are Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream. Welding is widely used across all these sectors and its applications can be classified accordingly.
Whether you’re working in the petrochemical, manufacturing or food and beverage industry, plant shutdowns are inevitable. Plant maintenance is vital to optimizing peak performance of a facility to ensure profitability, safety and regulatory compliance.
From a routine plant shutdown and maintenance period, metrics such as quality, schedule and cost can be measured and planned in advance. However, exceptions such as the global outbreak of COVID-19 global pandemic can pave the way for unexpected maintenance opportunities. In a move to contain the virus spread, companies close up shop temporarily to follow government mandates, protect their employees and take advantage of the opportunity to perform deep-cleaning routines using technologies like dry ice blasting on their factories simultaneously. (more…)
How To Weld Aluminum To Steel: Is It Possible? What Are My Options?
If you’re new to welding, you may be wondering if it’s possible for you to weld aluminum to steel. Welding “like-to-like” metals like steel-to-steel and aluminum-to-aluminum is usually very straightforward. However, when you try to weld together two very different metals like aluminum and steel – such as two components manufactured by tube laser cutting – things can get a little bit more complicated. So, is it possible to weld aluminum to steel? What are your options for doing so? Let’s discuss everything you need to know. (more…)
Quality Assurance (QA) is a set of defined processes for systematic monitoring and evaluation to assure product quality.
Quality Control (QC) is the process of confirming that the product meets the specifications. It includes the checking and testing of manufacturing procedures as well as the final products. The results from these tests are compared with a set of defined acceptance criteria. By carrying out QC testing during manufacturing, defects can be identified in a timely manner, allowing for the product flaw to be rectified and if required, adjustments to be made in the manufacturing process to prevent further defective output.
In welding, QA/QC plays a vital role in ensuring sound and reliable welds are produced and in minimizing rework. (more…)
There may only be one thing better than eating delicious barbecue cooked slow and low on a smoker, and that is eating some delicious barbecue that you cooked slow and low on the barbecue smoker that you made. Making barbecue smokers has long been a favorite hobby of backyard cooks and professional pitmasters alike. (more…)
ArcReach® technology is an investment that results in a lot of time saved during welding operations. With most welding equipment the operator needs to walk back and forth to adjust output voltage – sometimes over hundreds of feet – multiple times during a job. This results in hundreds of wasted hours and thousands of lost dollars over the course of a large project.
ArcReach technology enables welders to adjust the voltage settings right at the point of welding
ArcReach technology enables welders to adjust the voltage settings right at the point of welding instead of walking all the way to the power source and back. Even worse, if the voltage settings are “just good enough”, the operator might not bother making the trip, resulting in lower quality welds. (more…)
To begin with, different electrodes have different colored bands that are used to identify them. However, there are several other important differences to consider when selecting a tungsten. Here some of the various types with the respective characteristics: (more…)
When MIG welding was first invented, it used a constant voltage source of electricity for the arc. While this method is still used today, the invention of pulsed MIG (or MIG pulse) welding has allowed welders to realize several advantages over conventional MIG welding, several are listed below: (more…)
The Millermatic 252 is an impressive machine that’s capable of 300A output amperage. This allows you to weld at higher output for a prolonged period of time - perfect for those longer jobs. The 252 is suitable for a wide range of industrial work and is able to go from 22 gauge to 1/2 inch steel in a single pass.
If you’re regularly welding large pieces of metal for sustained periods of time or you need a machine that’s up to the task of working in a busy shop, the Millermatic 252 should be your number one choice.
Best Features of the Millermatic 252
The 252 has the highest output of all welders in the Millermatic range, making it a fantastic choice for those who weld for a living. It’s an incredibly versatile machine that can withstand even the busiest of environments and heaviest of workloads. Whether you’re using this machine to weld stainless steel or carbon steel, the Millermatic 252 is more than capable of the task.
For welders who need to pump a ton of wire into their welds, a resilient and reliable setup is a must. Being able to weld effectively without running the risk of delays is vital in this day and age. Financial losses as a result of machine breakdowns or jams can have a negative effect on a business. Remember, it’s important to select the right welding wire for the job.
Thankfully, the Millermatic 252 has a top of the range design that has been specially engineered to prevent incidents like this from occurring. It features an aluminum dual-gear drive system that allows the machine to feed wire without the need for any downtime. There are spaces on the machine for you to store drive rolls, so the disruption to your work is minimized.
The trademarked Auto Gun Detect technology allows users to simply pull the trigger on their MIG, spool, or push and pull gun and the Millermatic 252 detects the appropriate voltage and wire feed speed of the active gun. This saves a lot of time in the workplace and can reduce your job turnaround time dramatically, especially when you’ve taken the importance of welding surface preparation into consideration.
The cast aluminium drive system feature a number of controls that make the user experience as smooth as possible, including quick-change drive rolls, and an easy to set tension knob.
The EZ-Change™ cylinder rack allows users to change cylinders with minimal fuss by simply rolling them on and off. This is another time-saving feature that serves to make your welding experience as smooth as possible.
With an impressive gun range of 15ft, the Millermatic 252 enables users to work at longer distances than most of its competitor’s machines. The length means that it’s easy to work on larger pieces of metal without the need to be constantly readjusting the placement of your equipment.
The Drawbacks of the Millermatic 252
The Millermatic 252 is quite a big machine. Consequently, it’s not really suitable to be moved between locations due to the sheer size of it. As such, it’s best suited for a shop environment. Also, the larger MIG gun can make more intricate, thin work a challenge. Despite these minor drawbacks, the Millermatic 252 is an impressive machine that can hold its own among the best on the market.
Millermatic 252 Specifications
Unit Height: 30 in.
Unit Length: 40 in.
Unit Width: 19 in.
Rated Output: 300A maximum of 200 Amps at 28 VDC on a 60% duty cycle OR 250 Amps at 28 VDC on a 40% duty cycle
Input Voltage: 220/230/240 V
Weld Thickness: The 252 is able to weld anything from 22 gauge to 1/2 inch mild steel
Wire Feed Speed Range: 50 inches per minute to 700 inches per minute
Welding Amperage Range: 30 A – 300
Welding is a rewarding career, but work-related injuries can deter you; therefore, you must have the right knowledge about welding safety.
With the right welding safety precautions, welding as a career may offer an excellent income, job security, and even the opportunity to travel.
Some welders and the companies that employ them forget to follow the precautions, resulting in injuries that can be devastating. The Department of Labor estimates that in every a thousand welders, four of them will be fatally injured at some point of their careers. Because of this danger, there are numerous safety regulations you should always follow to help protect welders and those around them.
6 Welding Safety Tips
1 – Wear proper gear.
It is very crucial to have the right gear when you are welding. If you own a workshop, then you should ensure that your employees are completely covered. Every welder should wear flame-resistant clothing such as denim or wool. If cotton is worn, it should be treated to ensure that it is fire-resistant.
A welding jacket is an excellent way to help protect workers. Some may complain that welding jackets are too hot and too heavy to wear and will try to avoid wearing them. Many of the companies who make safety gear now make clothing that is lightweight yet still provides a great deal of protection. Newer styles allow welders more comfort and mobility.
Gloves are also essential for welding safety. In the past, the gloves were simply one-size fits all. Nowadays, gloves are designed with different sizes for different welding procedures. These new age gloves allow for welders to have increased maneuverability to work safely, yet efficiently. When it comes to shoes, boots, and high-top leather shoes offer the best for protection.
2 – Avoid the light.
Arc flash can damage the eyes. Always avoid exposure to the flash by wearing welding helmets fitted with a proper filtering shade to keep your eyes and face safe when welding. Select approved safety glasses with protective shields at the sides and ear protection to wear under the helmet. Also, go for a lens shade that is suitable for your welding application. You can use the OSHA guide to choose the best lens based on your welding procedures. Additionally, companies should install barriers or screens where appropriate to protect workers from arc flash.
3 – Avoid repetitive stress injuries.
Doing the same thing over and over again or being in the same position under the same strain for an extended period can frequently cause repetitive stress injuries. These kind of injuries have become a great concern to a lot of workers since they are severe enough to force a welder to give up his career. Workers should often take breaks to stretch. Managers should reiterate and stress that safe lifting techniques be practiced.
You can also avoid neck fatigue by using auto-darkening helmets. An auto-darkening helmet is lighter than the traditional fixed-shade helmet, and the worker is not required to look down to drop the hood frequently. Seconds saved between welds will allow for more productivity.
4 – Familiarize yourself with the equipment.
One of the most essential welding safety rules is to make sure that only workers who are adequately trained and authorized, use welding equipment. Many accidents occur because people use machines without the right training.
This often happens in home welding shops, where friends or family of the welder will try to work on a project themselves. It also occurs in professional settings when welders let others do their work or in the case of employers who wish to cut costs. Without proper training, increased incidence of injuries and property damage can be expected.
Additionally, everyone who operates a particular machine has to read the welder’s operating manual. It contains essential safety information, as well as information procedures that maximize the machine’s potential.
Ensure you read the welder’s operating manual.
5 – Proper ventilation.
Welding in a well-ventilated area that is at least 10,000 cubic feet with a 16-foot high ceiling. Place the welding equipment where you can get natural drafts or fans that blowin the fumes away from your face, or at least across it, but never straight into it. If the machine requires you to use a respirator or exhaust hood, wear the correct one to maintain clean breathing air.
6 – Don’t allow clutter.
Clutter is a welding workshop enemy. It is a significant cause of accidents such as fires since sparks can find more places to land and smolder. The working area should only have the equipment and tools that the workers are using.
To keep a workshop organized and safe, managers should consider labeling the places where each welding machine, tool, and equipment should be placed. Companies should also ensure that all welding cables are well-maintained. Then enforce the rules of keeping welding equipment and materials in proper places. Removing the clutter will help keep paths are clear and improve welding safety.
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As a responsible welder, try to do everything that you can to minimize accidents. Even when not welding, and just in the workshop, you still need to be safe. Incorporate safety into daily work habits and make sure that you follow these tips!
And when you’re ready to rent the best in welding equipment, contact Red-d-Arc. We can help you find exactly what you need! Click below or call us at 1-866-733-3272.
A welding certification is a key component for a professional welder that comes with many rewards; not to mention higher salaries, better job stability, and higher job demand. The welding industry forms a critical part of the global industrial sector.
Some of the industrial applications of welding include shipbuilding; in the fabrication processes of different metals like aluminum and steel, as well as providing various components used in the manufacture of HVAC units.
To create quality welds, a person is required to hold a certification in different welding categories. Therefore, they are required to pass a welding test to ensure that they possesses the right skills for the job.
In welding, a certification may be equated to a crown worn by a king. It shows proof of your efficiency, effectiveness, and ability to match the job description and other unique tasks within a specific level of expertise. A welding test is conducted by an authorized and certified welding inspector. A welding professional who is certified in working on a specific position is not necessarily able to work on other positions.
Fillet weld: Fillet welding involves joining two metals at a perpendicular position (at a right angle) or in a slanted angle. Fillet welds are also known as T joint or lap joint. Additionally, the two metals may also be welded in an overlapping position, which creates a triangular shape; used mainly in joining two metal tubes.
Groove weld: A groove weld is used to join two metal plates. A cross-sectional perspective of a groove weld shows two metals joined at a right/ slanted angle, giving it an L or V groove.
Understanding the Types of Welding Procedures
To propel your welding career to higher heights, you need to understand the processes involved in welding. Welders also need to undergo extensive training programs to develop hands-on experience. These are some of the factors that make a professional and versatile expert.
In any training college you attend, you may choose to learn about any of the following four procedures:
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
SMAW is a type of welding procedure that requires you to adhere to a stick welding manual. The process relies on electricity to create an arch between the stick and the surfaces to be joined. The procedure is used in the construction and fabrication of steel and iron structures.
Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
The FCAW procedure was formulated as an alternative to the SMAW process. It utilizes an automatic arc weld during the construction of different metal structures.
Gas Metal Gas Welding/Metal Inert Gas (GMGW/MIG)
GMGW/ MIG welding is the most common type of procedure in the welding industry. A shielding gas that runs along an electrode is used to heat the two metals to be joined. The method requires a constant flow of direct current and voltage.
Gas Tungsten Arch Welding/Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (GTAW/TIG)
GTAW/ TIG welding is used in joining two pieces of thick stainless steel and other non-ferrous metals. This method uses electricity and a tungsten electrode that produces the weld. It is a slow process and therefore requires a lot of skill and patience.
Types of Welding Certifications
Whichever procedure of welding you want to pursue, you must have the corresponding certification. A number/ letter system usually denotes that. For instance, in a 2G certification, the 2 shows the level position and the G stands for the gr0ove. Here are some types of certifications.
1G Welding Certification
As a 1G certified welder, you have to have the skills to create quality welds in the first position – flat position. Therefore, you weld the joint while looking down at it.
With a 1G certification, you can only handle welding procedures of joining metals at a flat position. The major challenge during a 1G test is that gravity makes the slag flow faster than the arc, which may cause poor quality welds due to cold lap and slag inclusion.
2G Welding Certification
Welders applying for a 2G welding test should be able to weld a joint moving from the left to right or vice versa while looking across the joint. It is a more advanced certification than the 1G test. Passing it means you can handle any jobs related to flat-position welding.
During this certification, welders are required to join two beveled plates with a first slow pass. The second layer is created rather quickly without quenching the first weld. That gives it the required quality.
3G and 4G Combo Welding Certification
While you may decide to take individual tests for both 3G and 4G certification, these two are typically combined. Excelling in the test combo shows you have the skills to meet any 3G and 4G jobs, including the others in the lower groove classes.
In 3G, both the plates and the weld axis are aligned vertically. In this position, you can either weld the joints from the bottom to the top, or starting from the top coming down. On the other hand, 4G welding requires skill sets that enable you to work on an overhead weld. Therefore, welders need to look up while joining overhead plates from the left to the right or the reverse.
5G and 6G Welding Certification
The 5G and 6G certifications feature a combination of tests that involve three positions: horizontal, vertical, and overhead. It is a type of certification required for welding pipes and tubes of small diameters; usually to be used in power plants and oil refinery industries. It is a complicated procedure because the horizontal position of the tubes involves a fixed 2G position as well as a 45-degree fixed position.
5G and 6G certifications are also used in the welding of larger pipes with bigger diameters. It is a line of work that calls for the knowledge of both 2G and 3G, where the pipe is fixed in a horizontal position and welded vertically using a recommended filler material.
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Welding is an exciting and reliable industrial sector. It provides the required metal welds used in different industrial lines. Because of that, it is crucial for welding professionals to have the required certification to ensure they have the right skills required at a particular welding certification.
For questions and concerns, call our world-class customer representatives at 1-866-733-3272. Or, visit our contact page and order top-of-the-line welding materials.
Are you unsure whether to buy your own equipment or to enter into a welding equipment rental arrangement? Renting your welding equipment may well be the better option for your business. There are many advantages to renting. We outlined a few of the them below.
Renting Your Welding Equipment Will Save You Money
Are you looking for the best rates on portable welder rentals? We can fulfill your welding equipment needs. At Red-d-Arc, we offer you a wide variety of welding equipment for almost every purpose. We provide customized recommendations on each piece of equipment that we rent out.
Most people who have been in a technical profession know the constant need for a variety of tools. One minute you may need a pliers, then a knife, then a file, then a screwdriver, and once the day is all done, a bottle opener. This is the reason why multi-tools have become so popular; they combine all of these tools into one. In the world of welding, there is something similar to a multi-tool. It is known as a multi-process welder. Red-D-Arc carries multi-process welders because we know that one minute you might be self-shielded flux core welding some dirty, ½” thick steel and then the next minute be fitting up 18 gauge aluminum that you need to gas tungsten arc weld.
Some of the most difficult welds to make are those that require the welding of a small diameter to a plate. Gas tungsten arc welding or gas metal arc welding joints such as these require a high degree of operator skill, take a great deal of time, and can be a quality nightmare. These factors become even more troublesome when the material with the small radius being welded is in the vertical or overhead position. Fortunately, Red-D-Arc provides stud welding equipment that increases productivity, decreases the required operator skill immensely relative to other welding processes, and allows for consistent, repeatable weld quality on materials with small radii.
What is Stud Welding?
Stud welding is a fusion welding process that is commonly used for the joining of small round stock to plate. The process requires a power source, a stud welding gun, a ground clamp, and the materials that are to be welded. To carry out the stud welding process, a solid, round piece of metal, also known as a stud, is placed into the stud welding gun. (more…)
Welding small diameter tubing can be difficult. The tight radii often require expert welders to deliver precise torch manipulation with finesse. If the welder is not skilled enough, the out of position areas are at risk of poor quality due to gravity affecting the weld pool and ineffective torch angles. If out of position welds cannot be completed satisfactorily, the part must be rotated. However, some assemblies can’t be rotated because of size constraints or they might rotate off of center. If a mechanized welding solution is desired for small diameter components, look no further than our Axxair Orbital Fusion Closed Welding Head Systems. (more…)
When selecting a wire electrode for welding, one will most likely run into an American Welding Society (AWS) filler metal classification. A purchaser who isn’t familiar with the AWS classification system might select the wrong type of wire. If the purchaser is only familiar with gas metal arc welding (GMAW) wire and is attempting to purchase self-shielded flux-cored wire (FCAW-S), confusion may arise about the differences between the two classifications. This too could result in selecting the wrong wire electrode. To help prevent this from happening, we’ve created this welding wire reference guide to remind welders exactly what the different AWS classifications designations mean. We’ve included references for solid wire electrodes, metal-cored wire electrodes, gas-shielded flux-cored electrodes, and self-shielded flux-cored electrodes.
Metallic parts sometimes fail their intended use at a lower stress than they are designated for.
Various forms of wear such as abrasion, impact, metal to metal contact, heat, and corrosion can compromise the strength of metal pieces. This is where hardfacing comes in. Hardfacing is a technique which can be applied to minimize the damage from these types of wear, helping to prolong the life of metal pieces.
What is hardfacing?
Hardfacing —often called hardsurfacing— is the covering of the metallic part with a wear resistant metal by welding. Alloys which commonly need to be hardfaced include carbon alloy and low alloy steels whose carbon content is lower than 1 %. These include stainless steels, manganese steels, cast iron as well as nickel and copper-based alloys.
Metallic parts sometimes fail their intended use at a lower stress than they are designated for.
Techniques, Materials and Costs
The particular hardfacing technique for a job depends on the geometry of the part and relative cost of the hardfacing method. Costs can vary with the deposition rate of the material.
These cost variations can be summarized as follows:
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) 8 to 25 lb/hr
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) 3 to 5 lb/hr
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), including both gas-shielded and open arc welding 5 to 12 lb/hr
Oxyfuel Welding (OFW) 5 to 10 lb/hr
Applied materials commonly include cobalt based alloys such as STELITE, and nickel based materials like chromium carbide alloys. More advanced materials such as complex carbides containing columbium, molybdenum, tungsten, or vanadium can also be used and provide more overall abrasion resistance. They also have a very low friction factor, which can be used in situations involving severe abrasion.
Hardfacing can be applied to both newly manufactured pieces, in order to prevent deterioration, or to strengthen and extend the life of worn pieces currently in use.
Red-D-Arc provides welding machines suitable for hardfacing using techniques including SMAW, FCAW and GMAW.
Gas (oxy-acetylene) welders used to be the rock stars of welding. From shipbuilding to automotive manufacturing to steel forging, but that was then. Arc welding is a modern welding method that outmatches gas welding in almost every respect.
Arc welders use electric current generated by a transformer or a generator to produce a uniform, clean welds that almost never require finishing. This is not the case with gas welding. Gas welding operates using the heat generated by the ignition of a gas mixture (oxygen and acetylene) to melt the welding material or to simply fuse two parts together. This process often results in a bad surface finish. Gas welding can require additional work involving hours of grinding and polishing the welds. (more…)
Having worked in shipyards for seven years, I’m familiar with how dirty this type of job site can be. Ship repair worksites and welding surfaces are often filthy with rust, dust and other contaminants. Even in shops and yards where fabrication is ongoing, cleanliness is often lacking. If fabricated or refurbished pieces are being installed onboard, the surface to which the piece will be welded could be rusty, coated with scale, or have other types of corrosion. (more…)
How important is it to remove welding smoke from the work area? Ask a welder, or ask someone who has to work in the vicinity of welders working in enclosed or semi-enclosed areas.
I recall some years ago working on a Navy general cargo ship. The ship was was undergoing extensive renovations and the hold of the had four or five levels. My employer, a small repair yard in San Francisco, unfortunately did not take air quality in the work area seriously. There were more than 20 of us working in the hold, and some number of us were welders. From a distance you could see where the work was being done — smoke and fumes drifting up out of the hold! In those days, safety requirements weren’t always top of mind. OSHA and other regulations aside, taking care of your workers by providing a safe work environment is simply the right thing to do. Without them your business can never be profitable. By failing to provide a safe workplace, you may lose workers due to health issues and employee turnover or face consequences for not complying with standards.
“respirators are hot and uncomfortable, and many welders simply refuse to use them”
There are a number of ways to deal with welding fume issues. One approach is the use of respirators. I often wore one, but they are hot and uncomfortable, and many welders simply refuse to use them. They can be remarkably expensive, over the long haul, given that filters must be replaced daily. If the mask is a disposable type, the entire mask must be replaced daily.
Portable smoke extractors – sometimes referred to as smoke eaters – are a far better solution. They extract a higher percentage of the fumes than respirator masks and protect everyone in the work area, not just the welders. They can be moved around the job site and from one job site to another, but can also be set up at permanent work stations. These machines can help make sure that your work space is a place where people can get their work done safely. Your employees will thank you.
Some years back I was working in a shipyard in San Francisco. The yard had several small repair jobs going, plus a fairly large project building six ocean-going barges. The supervisor who was in charge of the barge-building project was looking for volunteers to operate semi-automatic wire feeders, using flux-cored wire, to weld stiffeners to the skin of the barges. I had never used a wire feeder before, so I volunteered out of curiosity.
After a very short training period, possibly all of 30 minutes but I think a bit less, I was off and running. I was impressed by the quality of the welds and the speed at which they were deposited. Without question I was outpacing anything that could be done by stick welding, and I felt it was easier to maintain a uniform weld size too. The machine itself was light enough and small enough to move without difficulty, and the spools of wire lasted long and were quick and easy to replace when the spool of welding wire was finished.
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